十卷九期 91年5月16日

本 期 提 要 HEADLINES

1. 我國被列入特別三O一「優先觀察名單」

我經濟部國際貿易局表示,美國貿易代表署(USTR)於四月卅日下午三時 (美東時間)公布本年度特別三O一報告,總計有五十一個美國貿易夥伴被列入特別三一名單。我國被列入「優先觀察名單」(Priority Watch List) 

USTR係依各國保護智慧財產權程度不足之情形給予下列三種不同之等級:「優先指定國家」、「優先觀察」及「一般觀察」。被列為「優先指定國家」者,美方將於六個月內與該國諮商,若未能達成協議,美方將採相關貿易報復措施;被列優先或一般觀察國家者,不會立即面臨任何報復措施或立即要求諮商,除非察覺有更嚴重之違反保護智慧財產權行為。另若美方認為當年度某個國家有檢討需要,則將該國增列為「不定期檢討」對象。至於被列為受「三六條款」監督之國家,依美國貿易法規定,如有違反已與美國簽署之保護智慧財產權雙邊協定,且未依承諾改善保護智慧財產權環境,美國可不重新調查或諮商,即隨時予以貿易制裁。 

本年度特別三O一報告中,美方對於我光碟管理條例立法內容未如預期,感到失望,並指稱我為全世界仿冒光碟產品之主要來源之一,另企業非法使用軟體情形仍有相當高之比例,同時也存有商標仿冒問題,包括藥品商標方面。

Taiwan on Special 301 “Priority Watch List”

Taiwan’s Bureau of Foreign Trade indicated that at 3pm on April 30 (U.S. Eastern Time), the USTR had released its Special 301 Report for 2002, which listed a total of 51 of U.S.’s trade partners.  Taiwan was named on the “Priority Watch List”. 

USTR categorizes countries based on 3 different degrees of inadequacy in their intellectual property protection: “priority foreign countries”, “priority watch list” and “general watch list”.  The U.S. would engage in discussions with countries named on the “priority foreign countries” list within 6 months, and if an agreement could not be reached, the U.S. would adopt relevant trade retaliation measures.  Countries named on the “priority watch list” or “general watch list” would not face any immediate retaliation measures or requests for negotiation, unless more serious violations of intellectual property rights were discovered.  If the U.S. is in the view that there is a need to review certain countries, then those countries may be listed on the “irregular review” list.  If a country were listed as under monitoring or its “Section 306”, then if that country has already breached its bilateral IP agreement with the U.S. under the U.S. Trade Act, and has not made promised improvements, the U.S. can proceed directly with trade sanctions without further investigations or discussions. 

During the Special 301 Report of 2002, the U.S. had expressed disappointment in contents of Taiwan’s Optical Media Management Law, and had also accused Taiwan of being the main source of pirated optical media products globally.  In addition, in its view a substantial proportion of Taiwanese businesses are still using unlicensed software, and there are also problems with trademark infringements, including pharmaceutical product trademarks.

2. 中美完成「刑事司法互助協定」簽署

法務部於日前表示,我國與美國間之「刑事司法互助協定」,經我駐美代表處程代表建人與美國在台協會理事主席卜睿哲於美東時間二OO二年三月二十六日下午在美國在台協會完成簽署。該協定所提供之刑事司法互助之主要範圍包括(1)訊問證人(2)提供文件、紀錄及物品等物證(3)確定關係人之所在或確認其身分(4)送達文件(5)為作證或其他目的而解送受拘禁人(6)執行搜索及扣押之請求(7)協助凍結及沒收資產、歸還補償、罰金之執行程序(7)以及各項不違反受請求方所屬領土內法律之任何形式之協助等。 

該協定之簽署對加強我國與美國雙方執法人員共同合作打擊跨國性犯罪,包括販毒、洗錢、經濟犯罪、網路犯罪等均有相當助益,同時對於我國協助美國進行反恐怖活動,亦有積極之助益。

Taiwan & U.S. Sign “Agreement on Criminal Justice Cooperation”

The Ministry of Justice recently indicated Taiwan and U.S. had signed an “Agreement on Criminal Justice Cooperation” on the afternoon of March 26, 2002 (U.S. Eastern Time).  The signing took place at the AIT, and the signatories were Mr. CHEN Chien-jen of Taiwan’s TECRO in U.S., and Mr. PU Jui-che, Chairman of AIT.  Criminal justice cooperation provided by the two countries under the said Agreement include: (1) Interrogation of witnesses; (2) Provision such evidence as documents, records, and objects; (3) Location of relevant parties and confirmation of identity; (4) Service of documents; (5) Transporting persons in custody for testimonial or other purposes; (6) Executing requests for search and arrests; (7) Assist in freezing and confiscating assets, payment of damages, collection of fines; (8) Any other form of assistance that does not violate the laws of the country receiving the application for assistance. 

The signing of this Agreement will strengthen cooperative relationship between Taiwanese and U.S. judicial authorities in combating cross-national crimes, including drug-related crimes, money laundering, economic crimes, Internet crimes and so on.  It will also facilitate our assistance to the U.S. in fighting against terrorism.

3. 商標法修正草案(行政院版本)

現行商標法之主要架構係於八十二年十二月二十二日修正公布,之後,為配合加入世界貿易組織,八十六年五月七日復由  總統令修正公布第四條等八條條文,並於八十七年十一月一日施行。 

為配合行政程序法於九十年一月一日施行,行政院前於九十一年三月二十日以院臺規字第○九一○○八三○四○號函將商標法七十七條之一、第七十九條修正草案送請立法院審議在案。另因國內工商企業競爭激烈,各種企業活動推陳出新,現行商標法若干規定未能與時俱進,又鑑於商標流通具國際性,而一九九四年十月二十七日各國於瑞士日內瓦簽訂商標法條約後,各國均依其規定,朝商標制度統合及協調化而努力,我國自應密切關注。茲為因應國內企業發展需要、國際立法趨勢,現行商標制度確應作全盤修正,行政院爰提出「商標法」修正草案,並於本(九十一)年五月七日報請立法院審議。 

「商標法」修正草案(行政院版本)修正要點及其理由如次:

(1)    擴張商標之意義,凡表彰商品及服務者,均以「商標」涵蓋之。

(2)    法規鬆綁,放寬主張優先權應載明之事項為得補正之事項,並刪除申請商標註冊者其商標必須表彰自己營業及必須確具有使用意思之規定。

(3)    增訂聲音及立體形狀亦得作為商標之構成要素

(4)    因應電子商務及網際網路之發達修正商標使用之定義

(5)    配合行政程序法之規定,修正部分條文

(6)    採行審定書應由審查人員具名之制度

(7)    增訂商標不准註冊之事由,包括ヾ立體形狀若具有功能性,而為業者所需要,應不准註冊立體商標。有減損著名商標或標章識別性或信譽之虞之商標,不得註冊合理保護法人、商號及其他團體之名稱,商標與法人、商號或其他團體之名稱相同時,應否准予註冊,修正為視其有無致公眾混淆誤認之虞加以判斷。

(8)    增訂酒類地理標示

(9)    採行一件商標註冊申請案可同時指定多個類別之商品或服務

(10)  引進分割制度,於申請中得將一申請案請求分割為二以上之申請案;於註冊後得將部分商品或服務予以分割移轉;於異議及評定案件確定前亦得申請分割商標權。

(11)  導入註冊費分二期繳納之規定,使商標權人自行決定是否欲繳納第二期註冊費,以達商標有效管理之目的。

(12)  明定商標權之效力範圍

(13)  採行註冊後異議制度

(14)  廢除聯合商標制度及逐步廢除防護商標制度

(15)  廢除延展註冊申請之實體審查

(16)  商標權移轉不影響授權關係之存續

(17)  若商標權移轉之結果,有致相關消費者混淆誤認之虞者,應附加適當區別標示。

(18)  刪除申請廢止案之利害關係人資格限制

(19)  將明知為他人之著名註冊商標,竟使用相同或近似於該著名商標,或以該著名商標中之文字作為自己公司名稱、商號名稱、網域名稱或其他表彰營業主體或來源之標識,因而減損該著名商標之識別性或信譽者;或明知為他人之註冊商標,而以該商標中之文字作為自己公司名稱、商號名稱、網域名稱或其他表彰營業主體或來源之標識,致商品或服務相關購買人混淆誤認者等,明定為侵害商標權之態樣。

(20)  明定侵害商標權物品之邊境管制措施,包括商標權人對侵害其商標權之物品,得申請海關先予查扣之規定與程序、海關應廢止查扣與依申請返還保證金之法定事由及授權訂定實施辦法。

(21)  增訂團體商標及產地證明標章

(22)  明列團體商標、團體標章及證明標章等不當使用之態樣

(23)  明定過渡期間之相關規範

Draft Amendment of Trademark Law (Executive Yuan Version)

The basic framework of the presently applicable Trademark Law was promulgated on December 22, 1993.  Subsequently, in relation to Taiwan’s accession to the WTO, 8 articles were amended by order of the President on May 7, 1997, and entered into force on November 1, 1998.  In order to be consistent with the Administrative Procedures Law that came into force on January 1, 2001, the Executive Yuan had recently prepared draft amendments to Articles 77-1 and 79 of the Trademark Law, and had submitted them for consideration by the Legislative Yuan on March 20, 2002.  Given the high level of competition between businesses, many new types of business activities are now being invented, and the presently applicable Trademark Law must be amended to take them into account.  In addition, trademarks are now more international than ever, and since the signing of the trademark treaty in Geneva by various countries on October 27, 1994, all countries are working towards integration of their trademark systems.  In light of these concerns, the Executive Yuan had prepared further amendments to the Trademark Law, and submitted them to the Legislative Yuan on May 7, 2002. 

The main concerns in and reasons for the Executive Yuan’s version of the amendments are as follows:

(1)   The definition of “trademark” has been extended, so that it applies to all marks related to goods and services.

(2)   Certain requirements are relaxed, including allowing certain information that must be provided in respect of a claim of priority right to be supplemented.  The amendments also deleted the requirement that a potential trademark must represent the applicant’s own businesses, and the applicant must have an intention to use the mark.

(3)   Inserting provisions that allow sound and 3D shapes to form elements of a trademark.

(4)   The definition of “trademark use” is amended to take into account developments in E-commerce and Internet.

(5)   Certain amendments are made so as to be consistent with the Administrative Procedures Law.

(6)   Trademark examiner must specify his/her name on the examination decision.

(7)   Insert circumstances that will prevent registration of a trademark, including: (i) Where a 3D shape is functional and is a necessary element of the product, it may not be registered as a 3D trademark; (ii) A mark may not be registered, where there is likelihood that it will dilute the distinctiveness or damage the reputation of a famous trademark or service mark; (iii) Reasonably protect the names of juridical person, trade name or other associations, so that in deciding whether the trademark of a juridical person, trade name or other association that is identical with the name of another juridical person, trade name or other association should be registered, the criterion is amended to be “whether there is likelihood of misleading or confusing the relevant public”.

(8)   Insert provisions relating to place of production signs for alcohol and liquor products.

(9)   A trademark application may designate more than one class of goods or services.

(10) An application may be divided into two or more applications; a portion of products or services may be divided and transferred after trademark registration; application for trademark division may be made before affirmation of an opposition or evaluation.

(11)  Registration fees may be paid in 2 installments, so that the trademark owner can decide whether it will pay the 2nd installment.  This will facilitate more efficient management of trademarks.

(12) Clearly stipulate scope of trademark rights.

(13) Adopt an opposition-after-registration system.

(14) Abolish combined trademark system, and gradually abolish protective trademark system.

(15) Abolish substantive examination for applications to extend registration.

(16) Assignment of trademark will not affect continuation of trademark license.

(17) Where the assignment of a trademark is likelihood to cause confusion or mislead relevant consumers, appropriate distinctive marks should be adopted.

(18) Delete restrictions on interested parties that may apply for revocation of a trademark.

(19) Trademark infringements will include: knowingly using a mark that is identical or similar to another person’s registered famous trademark, or uses a part of the text in that famous trademark as its own company name, trade name, domain name or any other indication of its business identity or source, with the result of diluting distinctiveness or damaging reputation of that famous trademark; or knowingly using a part of the text in a registered trademark as its own company name, trade name, domain name or any other indication of its business identity or source, with the result of misleading or confusing relevant consumers.

(20) Stipulate border controls for infringing products, including allowing trademark owners to apply for seizure of products that infringe their trademarks.  The amendments stipulate the relevant procedures and requirements for stop of seizure and return of bond.  They also delegate determination of enforcement regulations.

(21) Insert group trademarks and place of production signs.

(22) Stipulate improper uses of group trademarks, group service marks, and certification marks.

(23) Stipulate regulations applicable during transition periods.

4. 經濟部召開跨部會協調會議,強化智財權之保護

政府為確實貫徹「推動保護智慧財產權行動年計畫」及行政院游院長有關加強保護智慧財產權之指示事項,經濟部於本(九十一)年四月二十六日在經濟部由部長林義夫以該計畫總召集人身份,親自主持跨部會之「推動保護智慧財產權行動年計畫執行情形協調會議」,兩位副總召集人法務部謝政務次長文定及內政部許政務次長應琛亦均親自出席,與會單位包括內政部、財政部、法務部、主計處、新聞局、行政院第五組、國家資訊通信發展推動小組等。 

本次會議主要係檢視行動年計畫及游院長四月三日院會提示事項辦理情形,並協商進一步密切合作以提升執行成效。各單位所提報之執行成果主要有:

一、經濟部:

已報奉行政院核定,提高檢舉仿冒盜版及查緝獎金,查獲仿冒品最高獎金由新台幣五萬元提高為十萬元,查獲製造仿冒品工廠(可併同領取前項獎金)自三萬元提高為五萬元,檢舉人獎金亦由三萬元提高為五萬元。

二、法務部:

「保護智慧財產權行動年查緝專案計畫」原於本年一月二十四奉行政院核定,實施期間自一月二十八日起至三月三十一日止,成效良好。鑒於盜版猖獗,仍有繼續加強查緝之必要,爰擬將原計畫延長實施,已報請行政院核定。另有關解決贓物倉儲不足問題,法務部將儘速與司法院舉行協調會議。

三、內政部警政署:

有關建立打擊侵害智慧財產權之專責警力,經濟部配合警政署保二總隊已將設立專責警力之實施計畫及經費來源陳報行政院,目前的規畫為本年度先成立一百名員額之專責警力,明年度起則擴大為二百二十名。

四、行政院主計處:

依據「政府機關使用合法軟體之稽核及獎懲計畫」,將不定時抽查各政府機關使用軟體之情況,並協助各政府機關與主要軟體公司議定特別價格。

五、財政部關稅總局:

加強情資蒐集通報及與境內查緝單位之情資交換,建立完整之情資網;並針對高風險貨物及廠商,加強抽驗;加強過濾艙單,於岸邊抽核可疑之貨櫃(物);機動巡查隊等單位加強進倉資料之查核及倉間之巡視工作;稽查、倉棧及機動巡查隊等單位對免審驗C1貨櫃(物)加強抽核;各關稅局事後稽核分組加強選案實施事後稽核,並針對特定公司辦理守法檢查。

會中並決定,本項會議暫定於六月、九月及十二月各召開一次,並由經濟部擔任彙總、管考及對外溝通聯繫之窗口。

MOEA Calls IPR Meeting

In order to thoroughly carry out the Government’s “Intellectual Property Right Protection Action Year” program and related instructions issued by Premier You of the Executive Yuan, the Ministry of Economic Affairs had on April 26, 2002 called an Inter-departmental “Coordination Meeting concerning Enforcement of Intellectual Property Right Protection Action Year”.  Minister Lin Yi-fu of the MOEA was chairman of the meeting, being the chief coordinator of the Action Year program.  Also in personal attendance were vice-coordinators Mr. Hsieh Wen-ding, Vice Administrator of the Ministry of Justice, and Mr. Hsu Ying-tan, Vice Administrator of the Ministry of Interior Affairs.  Participating departments included the Ministry of Interior Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Justice, Directorate General of Budget Accounting & Statistics (DGBAS), Government Information Office, Department 5 of the Executive Yuan, and the National Information Infrastructure (NII) Development Taskforce. 

The purpose of the meeting was primarily to examine progress of the Action Year program and carrying out of Premier You’s April 3 instructions.  Members also discussed closer cooperation so as to enhance the program’s effectiveness.  The results reported by each department are set out as follows:

1. Ministry of Economic Affairs:
As approved by the Executive Yuan, the rewards for complaints of infringement and seizure have been raised.  The highest reward for successful seizure of infringing products has been raised from NT$50,000 to NT$100,000; reward for successful discovery of infringing product manufacturer has been raised from NT$30,000 to NT$50,000 (and can be received together with the aforementioned reward); the reward for complainants has also been raised from NT$30,000 to NT$50,000.

2. Ministry of Justice:
The “Intellectual Property Right Protection Action Year Prosecution Taskforce” was approved by the Executive Yuan on January 24, 2002, and was originally intended to run from January 28 until March 31.  As the Taskforce had been highly successful in prosecuting pirated products, and there is still much need for anti-counterfeit efforts, it was decided that the original program should be extended.  Accordingly a proposal has been submitted to the Executive Yuan for approval.  As to the problem of insufficient space for warehousing infringing products seized during raids, the Ministry of Justice will hold a coordination meeting with the Judicial Yuan as soon as possible.

3. Department of Police of the Ministry of Interior Affairs:
Together with Pao-2 Team of the Department of Police, the MOEA has proposed an enforcement plan and budget for setting up a special police taskforce to combat intellectual property right infringement.  The proposal has been submitted to the Executive Yuan, and for now it is planned that the taskforce will consist of 100 officers, then increased to 220 next year.

4. DGBAS of the Executive Yuan:

Pursuant to the “Supervision, Reward & Penalty Guidelines for Use of Licensed Software by Governmental Departments”, the DGBAS will conduct random checks on software use by governmental departments.  It will also assist departments in negotiating more favorable prices from the main software companies.

5. Directorate General of Customs of the Ministry of Finance:

The DGC will strengthen its collection of information and exchange of information with police departments, so as to construct a comprehensive information network; it will conduct random checks directed at high-risk goods and businesses; it will review importation lists and conduct random inspections of suspicious cargoes; departments will strengthen inspection of warehouse information and warehouse supervision; it will conduct random checks on C1 cargoes that are exempt from examination.  It will strengthen its supervision of specific cases, and focus on specific companies in conducting compliance checks. 

It was also decided at the Coordination Meeting that the meeting will be held once each in June, September, and December respectively.  The MOEA will be in charge of coordination, supervision, and external liaison.