卷十四期 900731

本 期 提 要HEADLINES

WTO探討網路智財權
WTO Reviews Internet IPR
WCT及WPPT 與歐盟
WCT, WPPT and European Union
WIPO SCP討論專利制度之整合
WIPO's SCP Reviews Patent Rules
PCT專利申請之改革
Reform of PCT Patent Application
WIPO成立「基因資源、傳統知識及民間藝術與智慧財權政府間委員會」
WIPO forms the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore
WIPO將舉辦「電子商務與智財權研討會」WIPO
Conference on Electronic Commerce & Intellectual Property
WIPO 2000年商標和外觀設計註冊申請量創新高
Record Year for WIPO Trademark and Industrial Designs Applications in 2000
WIPO 2000年PCT申請量創歷史紀錄
Record Year for PCT Applications with WIPO in 2000
國內專利申請程序暨規費動態
Fees for Taiwan Patent Applications
電器行以電腦伴唱機公開演出他人音樂著作,屬合理使用之行為
Electrical Appliances Stores Publicly Perform Musical Works on Computer Karaoke Machines - Reasonable Use?

WTO探討網路智財權

世界貿易組織(WTO)為因應蓬勃發展之網際網路對智財權所可能產生的衝擊,於日前針對WTO TRIPs加以討論,包括網際網路「法院管轄權」、網際網路智財權侵害、網域名稱與商標、地理標示及其他具識別性的表徵及網路智財權與公平競爭等相關爭議及其有關規範整合之探討。

WTO Reviews Internet IPR

In response to the impact that rapid developments of the Internet might have on intellectual property rights, the World Trade Organization (WTO) recently engaged in discussions concerning TRIPS. Topics reviewed include "legal jurisdiction" on the Internet, infringement of Internet IPRs, identifying marks such as domain names, trademarks and geographic identifications, Internet IPRs and fair competition, as well as reform of applicable regulations.

WCT及WPPT 與歐盟

緣網路和電子商務的智慧財產權保護問題,使適應數位時代著作權法和鄰接權法的「世界智慧財權組織著作權條約(WCT)」和「世界智慧財權組織表演和錄音製品條約(WPPT)」於1996年應運而生。這兩個條約將分別在三十個國家批准後生效;迄今已有十九個國家批准了WCT,十六個國家批准了WPPT。2000年3月,歐盟正式決定加入這兩個條約,並積極促使歐洲議會頒布有關批准條令,這是歐盟及其成員國批准這兩個條約的前提條件。

WCT, WPPT and European Union

The WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) were created in 1996 to deal with the protection of Internet and E-Commerce IPRs. These 2 treaties deal with copyright and neighboring rights that are adapted to the digital era. These treaties are to take effect upon confirmation by 30 countrics respectively; so far 19 nations have confirmed the WCT, while 16 have confirmed the WPPT. In March 2000 the European Union officially decided to become a member to these 2 treaties, and has actively sought approval by the European Council, which was a precondition to the adoption of these 2 treaties by the European Union and its member countries.

WIPO SCP討論專利制度之整合

緣 2000年6月通過的專利法條約(Patent Law Treaty, PLT),僅統一了各國和各地區專利申請程序及維護程序;而專利合作條約(Patent Cooperation Treaty, PCT)也只是對PCT的申請做了規定,但在進入國家階段後,就由各締約國決定是否授予專利權。故WIPO專利法常委會(Standing Committee on the Law of Patent, SCP) 認應協調各不同專利制度,以便減輕各國專利局的工作量,降低國際專利保護的費用。
常委會決定第一階段的重點是對確定一項發明是否可以給予專利保護的六項法律原則,即優先權、新穎性、創造性、工業實用性、充分公開以及權利要求的結構與解釋等交換意見;第二階段是在2001年11月的會議上討論第一申請人與第一發明人、專利申請十八個月公開及核准專利權後異議等問題。
常委會於2000年11月6日至10日舉行第四次會議,討論了前揭有關協調實體專利法的問題,除於2001年5月14日至19日舉行會議,審議實體專利法條約草案,並將於同年11月上旬繼續審議是項草案。

WIPO's SCP Reviews Patent Rules

WIPO passed the Patent Law Treaty (PLT) in June 2000, which introduced a uniform system of patent application and protection for member nations. The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) also regulates application for participating in the PCT. However, once the process enters the domestic level, it is up to each member nation to determine whether patent rights would be granted. Therefore WIPO's Standing Committee on the Law of Patent (SCPT) believes that there should be uniformity in each nation's patent systems, so as to reduce the workload of national patent offices and reduce the costs of international patent protection.
The SCPT's focus in stage one was to exchange views concerning the 6 legal principles that determine whether patent should be granted in respect of an invention, i.e. priority, novelty, inventiveness, industrial utility, full disclosure and the structure and interpretation of the patent claims. In the second stage, WIPO will hold discussions during the meeting in November 2001 on such issues as the first applicant, first inventor, disclosure 18 months after patent application, and objections following grant of patent rights.
The SCPT held its 4th meeting from November 6 to 10, 2000 to discuss the coordination of substantive pate-
nt rules described above. A draft of substantive patent rules was reviewed during the meeting from May 14 to 19, 2001, and this review will be continued during its meeting scheduled for November of this year.

PCT專利申請之改革

專利合作條約(PCT)改革委員會於2001年5月21日在日內瓦開會討論PCT專利申請改革問題,包括簡化申請程式以提高全球申請系統的效率、降低申請費及申請電子化等;此外,將PCT專利申請改革與正由WIPO專利法常設委員會承擔的實體專利法協調工作相一致,使PCT與專利法條約(PLT)的條款盡可能結合在一起;該PCT改革方案將於2001年9月推薦給PCT聯盟大會。

Reform of PCT Patent Application

A meeting of the Committee on Reform of the PCT was held in Geneva on May 21, 2001. At the meeting, the Committee considered various changes and amendments to the PCT, such as to simplify and streamline certain procedures so as to enhance the efficiency of the global application system, to reduce the application costs, and to make electronic applications possible. It also discussed conforming PCT amendments to the Patent Law Treaty (PLT) reforms currently undertaken by the Standing Committee (SCPT), so that the provisions of the PCT and the PLT could be integrated where possible. A proposal for reform of the PCT will be made to the Assembly of the International Patent Cooperation Union (PCT Union).

WIPO成立「基因資源、傳統知識及民間藝術與智慧財權政府間委員會」

WIPO於日前成立一個「基因資源、傳統知識及民間藝術與智慧財產權政府間委員會」,並於2001年4月30日至5月3日在日內瓦舉第一次會議,該委員會的工作主要涉及 基因資源的獲取及利益的分享 保護與基因資源相關的或不相關的傳統知識、創新及創造 包括手工藝之民間藝術等三個方面的智財權問題。

WIPO forms the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore

WIPO recently established the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, which held its first meeting on April 30 to May 3, 2001 in Geneva. The work of this Committee will focus on 3 primary themes: access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing; protection of traditional knowledge, innovations and creativity, whether or not associated with those resources; and the protection of expressions of folklore, including handicrafts.

WIPO net計劃進入實施階段

WIPO 2001年開始全面實施WIPO全球資訊網(WIPO net)計劃,並就實施計劃已於2000年12月分別與IBM和SITA公司簽定合同。利用簽約公司網站、公共INTERNET及尖端技術組合之WIPO net,將在WIPO成員國之間建立起全球智慧財產權資訊網。WIPO net計劃包括建立WIPO net中心,預計於2001年9月建成,屆時171個國家的332個有關智慧財產局可以使用WIPO net 中心的服務,目前約160個局已經連接到INTERNET上;另是在WIPO總部建立網路服務,為約156個目前還沒有連接到INTERNET上的智慧財產局提供INTERNET連接以及電腦設備等,整個計劃預計於2002年完成。

WIPO net Enters Implementation Stage

WIPO began implementing its "WIPO net" project in 2001, and had entered into agreements with IBM and SITA relating to this project in December 2000. By utilizing the resources of these companies, public Internet and state-of-the-art technology, WIPO net will become a global intellectual property information network between WIPO's member nations. The WIPO net project includes establishing a WIPO net infrastructure by September 2001, which will enable 332 relevant intellectual property offices in 171 countries to utilize WIPO net's services. To date 160 intellectual property offices have already been connected to the Internet. Infrastructure will also be set up at the International Bureau of WIPO, providing computer facilities and Internet connectivity to 156 intellectual property offices that have not yet been connected to the Internet. The project is expected to be fully completed by 2002.

WIPO將舉辦「電子商務與智財權研討會」

WIPO將於2001年9月19日至21日在日內瓦舉行第二次「電子商務與智慧財產權研討會」,討論電子商務與智慧財產權領域有關法律、技術和政策導向的最新動態,有關該研討會的議程、發言人、費用、組織安排等,將在WIPO網站發布。


WIPO Conference on Electronic Commerce & Intellectual Property

The "WIPO Second International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Intellectual Property" will be held in Geneva on September 19 to 21, 2001. The Conference will address the latest developments in E-commerce and intellectual property laws, technologies and policies. Information about the agenda, speakers, costs and organizational arrangements of the Conference will be released on the WIPO website.

WIPO 2000年商標和外觀設計註冊申請量創新高

WIPO 2000年依據馬德里協定受理了近23000件國際註冊商標申請,比1999年增長了15%,每件商標平均指定12個國家,上述商標申請數量相當於276000件國家註冊商標申請。而商標註冊申請量最多的國家依序為德國、法國、荷蘭、比利時、盧森堡、瑞士、義大利、奧地利、西班牙、英國、瑞典和捷克共和國等。同年WIPO受理的國際工業品外觀設計註冊申請計4334件,比1999年增長6%,前十名分別是Interor's、Swatch、Sony Overseas、Daimler-Chrysler、Koninklijke Philips Electronics、Salomon、Hermes Sellier、BMW、Koziol Geshenkartikel及Unilever 等公司。

Record Year for WIPO Trademark and Industrial Designs Applications in 2000

In 2000, WIPO accepted almost 23,000 international applications of trademarks under the Madrid Agreement and Protocol, representing an increase of 15% from 1999. As each international application contained on average 12 designations of the countries, this is equivalent to over 276,000 national trademark applications. The largest numbers of applications were received from Germany, France, Benelux, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, Spain, the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Czech Republic. In 2000 WIPO also accepted 4,334 international industrial design applications, representing an increase of 6% from the previous year. The 10 companies with the greatest number of industrial design applications are: Interior's, Swatch, Sony Overseas, Daimler-Chrysler, Koninklijke Philips Electronics, Salomon, Hermes Sellier, BMW, Koziol Geshenkartikel and Unilever.

WIPO 2000年PCT申請量創歷史紀錄

WIPO 2000年共受理90948件PCT(專利合作條約)國際申請,較1999年增長22.9%,創歷史紀錄。美、德、日、英及法等國的PCT申請件數所占比例依序為42%、13.2%、10.3%、 6.1%、4.0%,並連續10年位居前茅。同年PCT國際申請在各個技術領域的分佈情況分別是化學、冶金20.9%,人類生活需要18.4%,物理18.0%,電學17.6%,作業、運輸14.8%,機械工程、照明、加熱、武器、爆破 6.1%,固定建築物2.8%,紡織、造紙1.4%。
(以上報導彙整自中國大陸國家知識產權局網站海外傳真資料)

Record Year for PCT Applications with WIPO in 2000

In 2000 WIPO processed 90,948 international applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), a record high representing a 22.9% increase from 1999. Applicants from the USA (42% of all applications in 2000), Germany (13.2%), Japan (10.3%), the United Kingdom (6.1%) and France (4.0%) topped the list of biggest users of the PCT system for the 10th consecutive year. A breakdown of PCT applications filed in 2000 according to industrial categories is Chemistry and metallurgy 20.9%; Human necessities 18.4%; Physics 18.0%; Electricity 17.6%; Performing operations and transporting 14.8%; Mechanical engineering, lighting, heating, weapons and blasting 6,1%; Fixed constructions 2.8%; Textiles and paper 1.4%.
(The above reports are compiled from information released by the PRC Intellectual Property Office website)

國內專利申請程序暨規費動態

經濟部智慧財產局於日前擬具「專利規費收費準則」修正草案,除將草案登載於該局相關網站(http://www.moeaipo.gov.tw/sub6/),並擬於八月份假該局舉辦公聽會,聽取有關各界建言,俾作為修正之參考。
此外,該局於民國九十年七月十八日以(九○)智法字第○九○八六○○○六七-○號函公告「專利申請程序鬆綁事項」(http://www.moeaipo.gov.tw/ipo.asp?sub=6)自即日起施行。前揭鬆綁事項包括宣誓書與申請權證明書之簽署外國公司申請之代表人及委任簽署繼承證明文件D宣誓書及申請權證明書之補正及展期之申請E無宣誓書及申請權證明書,相關切結書及相關證明文件之檢附F專利權或申請權讓與登記申請之雙方代表簽署等。
另該局依據日前召開之簡化「輸出視聽著作及代工鐳射唱片核驗著作權文件作業」會議之決議,於七月十六日公告廢止「經濟部智慧財產局駐基隆核驗中心設置及管理要點」。

Fees for Taiwan Patent Applications

The Intellectual Property Office (IPO) of Taiwan recently prepared draft amendments to the Patent Application Fees Schedule, which will be posted on its website (http://www.moeaipo.gov.tw/sub6/). It will also hold a public hearing in August at its offices to receive public suggestions concerning the amendments.
The IPO has also announced that Relaxed Items in Patent Application Procedures (http://www.moeaipo.gov.tw/ipo.asp?sub=6)will be in effect as of July 18, 2001 (by its Letter (90) Chi-Fa-0908600067-0). Items relaxed include: (a) signing of oaths and applicant certifications; (b) signing of application and powers of attorney by representatives of foreign companies; (c) certifications of assignments; (d) supplementation of oaths and applicant certifications, and applications for extensions; (e) attachment of undertakings and relevant supporting documentation, where oaths and applicant certifications are unavailable; (f) assignment of patent or application right, and signing by representatives of both parties.
In addition, according to the decision of the meeting on "Procedures for Examination of Copyright Documentation for Exported Audiovisual Works and OEM Laser Disks" held by the IPO, the Establishment and Management Rules for the Keelung Examination Center of the IPO will be abolished as of July 16 by public gazette.

電器行以電腦伴唱機公開演出他人音樂著作,屬合理使用之行為

針對電器行以電腦伴唱機「只播放音樂,無人演唱」及「為介紹給消費者該電腦伴唱機之軟硬體功能而隨機點選一、
二首歌曲跟唱」是否屬「公開演出」音樂著作之合理使用行為?經濟部智慧財產局於九十年六月十八日以(九十)智著字第09060004790號函表示,著作權法第三條第一項第九款規定「公開演出」係指:「以演技、舞蹈、歌唱、彈奏樂器或其他方法向現場之公眾傳達著作內容。以擴音器或其他器材,將原播送之聲音或影像向公眾傳達者,亦屬之。」所播送者若係他人之「視聽著作」,因視聽著作並無公開演出之權能,僅屬視聽著作之「公開上映」,若所播出者僅係音樂,則應屬公開演出他人音樂著作之行為。
查美國著作權法第一一○條第七項規定,在對外開放且未直接或間接收取進場費用之營業場所內,且播放音樂之目的若僅係為促銷唱片或視聽產品,則該公開演出音樂之行為可認為係音樂著作之合理使用;我國著作權法第六十五條第二項亦明定有「其他合理使用」之概括性規定,上述電器行內以電腦伴唱機公開演出他人音樂著作之行為,
參酌外國立法例,亦應有合理使用之空間,供利用人免授權而得利用著作。


Electrical Appliances Stores Publicly Perform Musical Works on Computer Karaoke Machines - Reasonable Use?

Is it a "reasonable use" of a musical work for electrical appliances stores to "publicly perform" these works on computer karaoke machines? It is argued that these machines "only play music without the actual singing", and "consumers pick one or two songs to sing along, only for the purposes of being shown the functionality of the hardware and software of the karaoke machine". According to the explanatory letter issued by the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) of the MOEA on June 18, 2001 (ref. 2001-Chi-Chu-09060004790), "public performance" under Sub-par. 9, Par. 1, Article 3 of the Copyright Law refers to: "Communicating the contents of a work to members of the general public present by acting, dancing, singing, playing an instrument or other means. The same applies to the communication of originally broadcasted sound or images to the general public by means of an amplifier or other equipment." If the subject matter of the broadcast is another person's "audio-visual work", then since it is not possible to publicly perform an audio-visual work, it can only be considered a "public screening" of the audio-visual work. If the subject matter being broadcasted is music alone, it should be considered public performance of another person's musical work.
Pursuant to Section 110(7) of the U.S. Copyright Act, an act of public performance of a musical work is deemed reasonable use of the work, if it is performed within a place of business that is open to the public and which does not directly or indirectly charge for entry, and the purpose for playing the music is to promote music albums or audio-visual products. Par. 2, Article 65 of the Taiwanese Copyright Law also contains a general provision regarding "other reasonable use". Based on legal examples overseas, it is possible that the public performance by electrical appliances stores of other people's musical works can be considered a "reasonable use", and it is not necessary for use of the work to be separately licensed.