卷十八期 900930
1.我最快可望於本年底加入WTO

WTO入會工作小組最後一次正式會議頃於台北時間九月十八日晚間十時在日內瓦召開,會中順利完成我入會議定書、入會工作小組報告、關稅減讓彙總表及服務業承諾表等入會文件之採認工作。未來我入會文件將提交預定於今年十一月九至十三日在卡達召開之第四屆WTO部長會議中正式採認。根據WTO之入會程序,我入會文件於提交WTO部長會議中正式採認之後,我行政部門必須將該等文件送請立法院審查通過,並咨請總統完成批准程序。嗣後我方即可致函WTO秘書處,確認我國接受我入會議定書,並將入會文件存放WTO秘書處。我國將於秘書處接獲我確認函之後第卅日起成為WTO之正式會員。

我國於79年1月1日以「台灣、澎湖、金門及馬祖個別關稅領域」之名稱向GATT秘書處提出入會申請,81年9月29日GATT理事會正式接受我入會申請案,並成立工作小組進行審查。在GATT入會談判過程中,適逢GATT烏拉圭回合談判於82年12月15日達成最終協議,並於84年1月1日正式成立WTO,GATT與WTO並存1年後功成身退,我爰於同年12月1日申請加入WTO。此次工作小組會議順利採認我入會案,係我國過去十一年多以來努力爭取入會之過程中的一個極為重要的里程碑。

未來我國在加入WTO之後,經貿體制將更為開放、透明,同時亦可依據WTO最惠國待遇及國民待遇原則,與各會員國在公平之基礎上進行各項經貿活動,享受各會員國市場開放之成果,我國際經貿活動之空間將更為寬廣。此外,我國也可在WTO爭端解決機制的架構下,公平合理地解決與他國之各項貿易爭端,以及採取各項符合國際規範的經貿措施,來保護我國內的產業免於受到不公平的競爭。

在我入會過程中所作之各項承諾,有許多涉及必須修法、立法的部分,而立法院已通過四十一項系列法案及同步法案。最近由於我與各國進一步諮商之結果,現仍有十四項與入會相關之法案,有待立法院在十一月卡達部長會議召開之前儘速審查通過。

而有關智慧財產權入會承諾方面,我國承諾對於智慧財產權之保護,將符合WTO與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定(TRIPS)之規範,茲摘要分述如下:
ATRIPS-著作權及其相關規定
將修正相關條文,電腦程式著作之保護將比照文學著作,保護期間將增為作者終身加50年或自公開發表後50年。
BTRIPS-專利權
A刪除外國人申請微生物專利、延長專利權期間及享有進口排他權,需有雙邊互惠關係之限制。
B半導體技術之特許實施,僅限於增進公益之非營利使用,或涉及不公平競爭行為之救濟等情形。
C授權司法機關,以非商業管道,處理侵害智慧財產權物品,賦予專利權人及其專屬被授權人,請求銷毀侵害物、製造侵害物之原料及生產機具,或為其他必要處置之權利。
D修訂有關製程專利舉證責任之轉換。
E延長保護工業設計之期限至十年。
CTRIPS-執行
A將持續貫徹執行TRIPS協定。
B鑑於違法走私進口之菸、酒或偽菸、酒產品,嚴重影響合法進口產品之銷售,我方保證查獲之私貨,將一律銷毀,或參考會員國使用之方式處理,此外,某些進口酒類將強制檢附原產地證明。
C入會時將全面執行TRIPS協定規定。我國保證於入會時將履行下列承諾:
A提供地理標示及著名商標充分保護;
B建置一包含TRIPS協定所列各項要件之商標註冊系統;
C修正我國著作權法,以符合TRIPS協定第14.1條規定;
D將目前所有基於雙邊協定之互惠優惠,擴大及於所有WTO會員,並取消任何互惠規定;
E有效執行TRIPS協定。
D法規透明化
有關WTO之法案將於入會時完成修正或訂定,以符合入會之承諾。入會時我方將會出版有關貿易之所有法律、規定、司法判決及行政裁決,使會員及貿易商熟悉這些法規。

Taiwan May Enter WTO by End of 2001

The WTO working party handling entry applications held its last formal meeting in Geneva on September 18 at 10pm Taipei Time. The meeting successfully finalized documents relating to Taiwan's entry to the WTO, including the entry agreement, working party report, tariffs reduction schedule and services industry commitments. The text of the agreements will be adopted formally at the WTO's 4th Ministerial Conference, scheduled to take place on November 9 to 13 in Qatar. According to the WTO's entry protocols, following formal adoption by the Ministerial Conference, Taiwan's relevant administrative departments must submit the entry agreements to the Legislative Yuan for its examination and approval, and then submit the same for approval by the President. After completion of these procedures Taiwan will inform the WTO Secretariat of its acceptance of the entry agree-
ments and deposit the agreements with the Secretariat. 30 days after the Secretariat's receipt of Taiwan's confirmation, Taiwan will become a formal member of the WTO.

Taiwan had applied for entry to GATT on January 1, 1990 under the name of "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu". GATT formally accepted the application on September 29, 1992 and established a working group to assess the application. While the entry negotiations were still taking place, GATT members reached an agreement at the Uruguay Round on December 15, 1993, pursuant to which the WTO was formally established on January 1, 1995. After coexisting for one year, GATT retired for WTO to take its place, and Taiwan applied in the same year to join the WTO. The present approval of the application by the working party is a significant landmark in Taiwan's tireless efforts over 11 years in seeking to join the international organization.
Following Taiwan's entry to the WTO, its economic and trade systems will become more open and transparent. Taiwan will also be able to engage in economic and trade activities with other member countries on a fair and equal basis under WTO's "most favored nation treatment" and "national treatment" principles, and enjoy the benefits of each member nation's open markets. Taiwan will have access to WTO's dispute resolution mechanisms in equitably and reasonably resolving trade disputes with other countries, as well as adopt economic and trade measures that comply with international standards, so as to protect Taiwanese industries from unfair competition.
Many commitments undertaken by Taiwan during the entry negotiations involve revisions of existing laws or promulgation of new laws. With the Legislative Yuan's support, 41 pieces of legislation have been passed, but following further consultations with other member countries, 14 more relevant pieces of legislation still remain to be considered by the Legislative Yuan. It is hoped that these legislations can be examned and passed in time for the WTO Ministerial Conference in Qatar in November.
In respect of entry commitments relating to intellectual property rights, Taiwan undertakes to grant such intellectual property rights protection as consistent with the WTO's TRIPS regulations. Below is a summary of these regulations:
a.TRIPS - Copyright & Relevant Regulations
Relevant legal provisions will be revised, so that protection of computer programs will be consistent with protection granted to literary works. The period of protection will be extended to the author's lifetime plus 50 years, or 50 years after publication.
b.TRIPS - Patent
(a) Removing restrictions on the need for reciprocity on foreign applications for micro-organism patents, extensions of patent periods, and exclusive importation rights.
(b) Compulsory license for semi-conductor technology is limited to non-profit public welfare purposes, or where it involves remedies for circumstances of unfair competition.
(c) Authorize the judicial authorities to dispose of items that infringe intellectual property rights through non-commercial channels, and grant patent owners or licensees the right to request that the infringing items, as well as their raw materials and production equipment, be destroyed or disposed of by other necessary means.
(d)Revise legal provisions concerning reversal of burden of proof in manufacturing process patent cases.
(e) Extend the period of protection for industrial designs to 10 years.
c.TRIPS - Enforcement
(a)Continue to enforce the provisions of TRIPS.
(b) As illegally imported tobacco, liquor or counterfeit tobacco and liquor products seriously affect the distribution and sale of legally imported products, Taiwan undertakes to destroy all smuggled imports, or have reference to disposal practices adopted by other member countries. In addition, it will be compulsory for certain imported alcoholic beverages to provide certificates of origin.
(c)Taiwan will enforce all TRIPS provisions upon entry to the WTO, and undertake to meet the following commitments:
けgive full protection to geographical marks and famous trademarks;
げestablish a trademark registration system that includes the various elements specified in TRIPS;revise Taiwan's existing Copyright Law so as to comply with the provisions of Section 14.1 of TRIPS;extend any existing bilateral favorable treatments to all WTO members, and abolish any reciprocity arrangements; and effectively enforce provisions of TRIPS.
d.Legal Transparency
Taiwan will complete all revisions or promulgations of laws prior to entry to the WTO, so as to meet its commitments for entering the organization. Taiwan will also publish information concerning its economic and trade laws, regulations, judgments and administrative decisions, so as to enable WTO members and trading partners to become familiar with the relevant laws.

2.我專利法、商標法及著作權法最新修法動態

我國為配合WTO TRIPS、行政程序法之施行及「經濟發展諮詢委員會議」等陸續修正相關專利法、商標法及著作權法,包括A立法院審議中之延長專利權期間之「專利法第一百三十四條修正草案」B立法院審議中之「專利法部分條文修正草案」C配合甫於日前落幕之「經濟發展諮詢委員會議」有關「健全智財權審查機制」之專利法修正草案D配合行政程序法施行及WTO邊境管制措施之已於立法院審議之「商標法部分條文修正草案」E行政院審議中之「商標法再修正草案」F電腦程式著作之著作財產權期間修正為作者終生加五十年之已在立法院審議之「著作權法第三十四條第一項修正草案」G配合行政程序法施行已於立法院審議中之「著作權法部分條文修正草案」H預計於今年底以前由行政院送請立法院審議之「著作權法部分條文修正草案」等。

Current Revisions to Patent, Trademark & Copyright Laws

In coordination with the enforcement of WTO's TRIPS, the Law of Administrative Procedures, and the recommendations of the Economic Development Advisory Conference, (EDAC) Taiwan has continued to make relevant revisions to its Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Laws. These revisions include:(a)Draft Amendment to Article 134 of the Patent Law, which extends the patent right period and is currently being considered by the Legislative Yuan; (b)Draft Partial Amendments to the Patent Law, also being considered by the Legislative Yuan; (c)revisions to the Patent Law relating to "Sound Examination Mechanisms for Intellectual Property Rights", recommended by the recently concluded EDAC; (d)Draft Partial Amendments to the Trademark Law, in coordination with enforcement of the Law of Administrative Procedures and WTO border restriction measures, also being considered by the Legislative Yuan; (e)Draft Amendments to the Trademark Law, being considered by the Administrative Yuan; (f)Draft Amendment to Paragraph 1, Article 34 of the Copyright Law concerning extending copyright protection of computer programs to lifetime of author plus 50 years, currently being considered by the Legislative Yuan; (g)Draft Partial Amendments of Copyright Law, in coordination with enforcement of the Law of Administrative Procedures and being considered by the Legislative Yuan; and (h)Draft Partial Amendments of Copyright Law, which should be submitted by the Administrative Yuan to the Legislative Yuan by the end of the year.

3.智慧局提出健全智財權審查機制之專利法修正草案

我「經濟發展諮詢委員會議」甫於九十年八月二十六日落幕,並達成三百二十二項共同意見,其中涉及專利法修正事宜之「健全智財權之審查機制」一項,行政院並應於立法院本會期十月三十一日休會前完成報請立法院審議之程序。緣此,經濟部智慧財產局配合前述共同意見,擬具專利法修正草案,修正重點如下:A廢除再審查程序。B專利案經核准審定繳納規費後,即予公告發證。C整合提起異議與舉發之法定事由,廢除異議程序。D修正專利權之年費減免規定。E新型改採形式審查制度。

IPO Proposes Draft Patent Law Amendments for "Sound Examination Mechanisms for Intellectual Property Rights"

Taiwan's Economic Development Advisory Conference (EDAC) recently concluded on August 26, 2001 and reached an agreement on 322 recommendations. Under one of them, concerning a "Sound Examination Mechanisms for Intellectual Property Rights", the Administrative Yuan must submit relevant draft amendments of the Patent Law for consideration by the Legislative Yuan before the current session of the Legislative Yuan ends on October 31. Accordingly the IPO has prepared draft amendments of the Patent Law, which mainly deal with the following issues:(a)abolish the re-examination process; (b)a patent application will be gazetted and certificate issued, upon the application being approved and the fees being paid; (c)integrate the causes for objection and complaint, and abolish the objection process; (d)revise regulations concerning reduction/exemption of annual fees for patents; and (e)adopt an "examination of form" system for new utility models.

4.商標依職權審查應聲明不專用規定事項之處理原則

經濟部智慧財產局依據商標法第三十九條及商標法施行細則第二十八條規定,於九十年八月二十八日以(九○)智商九八○字第○九○五○○○○五五-○號函公告「依職權審查應聲明不專用規定事項之處理原則」如次:
A圖樣中包含說明性或不具特別顯著性之文字或圖形者,除得由申請人依商標法施行細則第二十八條規定聲明該部分不專用外,已公示之案例或顯無疑義者,自本公告之日起,申請人未聲明不專用之案件,商標審查人員得依職權認定商標圖樣不專用之部分,並於商標公報上公告不專用之意旨及範圍。
B商標審查人員依職權認定商標圖樣不專用事項,應以本局前案業經公告或無疑義之事項為準,並得參考本公告附表之例示情形。惟商標審查人員對於商標圖樣中之文字或圖形等之涵義若仍有疑義,應通知申請人陳明後,再行判斷得否不專用。
C採行前項作業措施,係由於實務上對於申請人未聲明不專用之案件,商標審查人員會通知申請人補正聲明不專用後始進行審查,惟時有申請人疏忽未為回覆或延遲回覆而影響審查時效,由審查人員依職權認定商標圖樣應聲明不專用之部分,實質而言,對申請人並無不利,對提升案件審結時效,則有極大助益。

Guidelines for Declaration of Non-Exclusivity for Examination of Trademarks by Official Power

Pursuant to Article 39 of the Trademark Law and Article 28 of the Trademark Law Enforcement Rules, the IPO on August 28, 2001 publicly announced by its letter (90) Chi-Shang-980-0905000055-0 the "Guidelines for Declaration of Non-Exclusivity for Examination of Trademarks by Official Power" as follows:
a. Where the mark contains explanatory or not inherently distinctive text or drawings, the applicant may declare non-exclusivity in respect of the said parts, pursuant to Article 28 of the Trademark Law Enforcement Rules. As of the date of this letter, for publicly gazetted cases or cases where there appears to be no dispute, where the applicant has not declared non-exclusivity, trademark examiners may determine within their powers parts of the trademark that is non-exclusive, and publicly announce the declaration and scope of non-exclusivity in the Trademark Gazette.
b. Parts of trademarks determined by trademark examiners within their powers to be non-exclusive should be limited to parts already previously gazetted as such by the IPO or where there is no dispute, and examiners may refer to examples in the schedule to this letter. However, where trademark examiners have doubts concerning the text or drawings in the trademark, they should notify the applicant to submit an explanation prior to deciding whether such parts should be non-exclusive.
c. The reason for adopting the aforementioned procedures is that under present practice, for cases where applicants have not made a declaration concerning non-exclusivity, trademark examiners would notify applicants to provide such a declaration prior to proceeding with the examination. However, applicants frequently neglect to respond or delay in responding, causing delay in the examination process. It will not be in any way detrimental to applicants for examiners to determine within their powers non-exclusivity in respect of parts of a trademark, and it will great aid the speedy conclusion of the examination process.

5.FVWP九十年第三季反盜錄工作成果

根據財團法人電影及錄影著作保護基金會(FVWP)就視聽著作物之調查、取締及其真品平行輸入之處理的統計資料披露,九十年七至九月該會受理海關執行視聽著作物真品平行輸入交付查詢之案件計有乙件,查詢結果係疑似未經合法授權之案件。
是項期間,FVWP並針對錄影帶出租店、MTV視聽中心、影碟(LD)交換中心等進行了512件調查,另會同行政院新聞局等相關政府機關執行468件取締工作,共計查扣錄影帶、影碟、VCD、DVD等107,892卷(片)。
此外,FVWP代理美國電影協會(MPAA)的會員公司向我國法院提起190件訴訟案。

Work by FVWP in 3nd Quarter of 2001

From July to September 2001, the Foundation for the Protection of Film and Video Works (FVWP) handled 1 case of suspected parallel importation of copyrighted audio-visual works referred by the Customs authorities. The FVWP's opinion was that the importer did not obtain properly authorization from the copyright holder to import the works into Taiwan.
During the same period the FVWP had conducted 512 investigations of video rental stores, MTV parlors and laser disc exchange centers. It also carried out 468 raids with the assistance of the Government Information Office (GIO) and other agencies, resulting in the seizure of 107,892 videotapes, laser discs, VCDs and DVDs.
In addition the FVWP has filed 190 lawsuits in Taiwan on behalf of member companies of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA)